There isn't actually as much as you might think in the Bible about the originations of "Satan", the idea isn't fleshed out as much as it is in modern christianity.
In hebrew, the word can simply mean adversary, and probably didn't start out as a proper noun. In Job it is used as a title but in that book Satan is described in a roll that's more like "official tester of faith" than as rebellious angel, of course Job is quite obviously intended to be more moral fable than theodicy, so take that as you will. It is also possible that Jesus' use of the word in speaking with Peter (Get thee behind me, Satan) was intended in the generic "adversary" sense, but I am not sure.
I think the classic description of fallen angels is found in 2nd Peter
, however it doesn't mention "Satan" by name as a fallen angel. The idea of fallen angels could go back to Genesis
and the story of the flood, if you interpret "Sons of God" to mean angels in that context. There may also be some preceeding jewish tradition but i'm not familiar with it.
There is also a description of "Lucifer" in Isaiah
, which sounds similar to the modern idea of Satan as fallen angel, but the context of the passage could also be taken to refer to some other king of one of the surrounding nations. The translation of "Lucifer" is at least somewhat controversial, I believe it owes mostly to the latin Vulgate translation of the hebrew scriptures. According to Wikipedia
, the original hebrew is a reference to a Babylonian God, which could be metaphorical for a ruler.
That's pretty much all I can remember.